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Pytest-Usage and Invocations

Calling pytest through python -m pytest {#cmdline}

You can invoke testing through the Python interpreter from the command
line:

python -m pytest [...]

This is almost equivalent to invoking the command line script
pytest [...] directly, except that calling via python will also add
the current directory to sys.path.

Possible exit codes

Running pytest can result in six different exit codes:

Exit code 0

: All tests were collected and passed successfully

Exit code 1

: Tests were collected and run but some of the tests failed

Exit code 2

: Test execution was interrupted by the user

Exit code 3

: Internal error happened while executing tests

Exit code 4

: pytest command line usage error

Exit code 5

: No tests were collected

They are represented by the pytest.ExitCode{.interpreted-text
role=“class”} enum. The exit codes being a part of the public API can be
imported and accessed directly using:

from pytest import ExitCode

::: {.note}
::: {.title}
Note
:::

If you would like to customize the exit code in some scenarios,
specially when no tests are collected, consider using the
pytest-custom_exit_code
plugin.
:::

Getting help on version, option names, environment variables

pytest --version   # shows where pytest was imported from
pytest --fixtures  # show available builtin function arguments
pytest -h | --help # show help on command line and config file options

The full command-line flags can be found in the
reference <command-line-flags>{.interpreted-text role=“ref”}.

Stopping after the first (or N) failures {#maxfail}

To stop the testing process after the first (N) failures:

pytest -x           # stop after first failure
pytest --maxfail=2  # stop after two failures

Specifying tests / selecting tests {#select-tests}

Pytest supports several ways to run and select tests from the
command-line.

Run tests in a module

pytest test_mod.py

Run tests in a directory

pytest testing/

Run tests by keyword expressions

pytest -k "MyClass and not method"

This will run tests which contain names that match the given string
expression
(case-insensitive), which can include Python operators that
use filenames, class names and function names as variables. The example
above will run TestMyClass.test_something but not
TestMyClass.test_method_simple.

::: {#nodeids}
Run tests by node ids
:::

Each collected test is assigned a unique nodeid which consist of the
module filename followed by specifiers like class names, function names
and parameters from parametrization, separated by :: characters.

To run a specific test within a module:

pytest test_mod.py::test_func

Another example specifying a test method in the command line:

pytest test_mod.py::TestClass::test_method

Run tests by marker expressions

pytest -m slow

Will run all tests which are decorated with the @pytest.mark.slow
decorator.

For more information see marks <mark>{.interpreted-text role=“ref”}.

Run tests from packages

pytest --pyargs pkg.testing

This will import pkg.testing and use its filesystem location to find
and run tests from.

Modifying Python traceback printing

Examples for modifying traceback printing:

pytest --showlocals # show local variables in tracebacks
pytest -l           # show local variables (shortcut)

pytest --tb=auto    # (default) 'long' tracebacks for the first and last
                     # entry, but 'short' style for the other entries
pytest --tb=long    # exhaustive, informative traceback formatting
pytest --tb=short   # shorter traceback format
pytest --tb=line    # only one line per failure
pytest --tb=native  # Python standard library formatting
pytest --tb=no      # no traceback at all

The --full-trace causes very long traces to be printed on error
(longer than --tb=long). It also ensures that a stack trace is printed
on KeyboardInterrupt (Ctrl+C). This is very useful if the tests are
taking too long and you interrupt them with Ctrl+C to find out where the
tests are hanging. By default no output will be shown (because
KeyboardInterrupt is caught by pytest). By using this option you make
sure a trace is shown.

Detailed summary report {#pytest.detailed_failed_tests_usage}

The -r flag can be used to display a “short test summary info” at
the end of the test session, making it easy in large test suites to get
a clear picture of all failures, skips, xfails, etc.

It defaults to fE to list failures and errors.

Example:

# content of test_example.py
import pytest


@pytest.fixture
def error_fixture():
    assert 0


def test_ok():
    print("ok")


def test_fail():
    assert 0


def test_error(error_fixture):
    pass


def test_skip():
    pytest.skip("skipping this test")


def test_xfail():
    pytest.xfail("xfailing this test")


@pytest.mark.xfail(reason="always xfail")
def test_xpass():
    pass
$ pytest -ra
platform linux -- Python 3.x.y, pytest-6.x.y, py-1.x.y, pluggy-0.x.y
cachedir: $PYTHON_PREFIX/.pytest_cache
rootdir: $REGENDOC_TMPDIR
collected 6 items

test_example.py .FEsxX                                               [100%]

_______________________ ERROR at setup of test_error _______________________

    @pytest.fixture
    def error_fixture():
>       assert 0
E       assert 0

test_example.py:6: AssertionError
________________________________ test_fail _________________________________

    def test_fail():
>       assert 0
E       assert 0

test_example.py:14: AssertionError
SKIPPED [1] test_example.py:22: skipping this test
XFAIL test_example.py::test_xfail
  reason: xfailing this test
XPASS test_example.py::test_xpass always xfail
ERROR test_example.py::test_error - assert 0
FAILED test_example.py::test_fail - assert 0

The -r options accepts a number of characters after it, with a used
above meaning “all except passes”.

Here is the full list of available characters that can be used:

  • f - failed
  • E - error
  • s - skipped
  • x - xfailed
  • X - xpassed
  • p - passed
  • P - passed with output

Special characters for (de)selection of groups:

  • a - all except pP
  • A - all
  • N - none, this can be used to display nothing (since fE is the
    default)

More than one character can be used, so for example to only see failed
and skipped tests, you can execute:

$ pytest -rfs
platform linux -- Python 3.x.y, pytest-6.x.y, py-1.x.y, pluggy-0.x.y
cachedir: $PYTHON_PREFIX/.pytest_cache
rootdir: $REGENDOC_TMPDIR
collected 6 items

test_example.py .FEsxX                                               [100%]

_______________________ ERROR at setup of test_error _______________________

    @pytest.fixture
    def error_fixture():
>       assert 0
E       assert 0

test_example.py:6: AssertionError
________________________________ test_fail _________________________________

    def test_fail():
>       assert 0
E       assert 0

test_example.py:14: AssertionError
FAILED test_example.py::test_fail - assert 0
SKIPPED [1] test_example.py:22: skipping this test

Using p lists the passing tests, whilst P adds an extra section
“PASSES” with those tests that passed but had captured output:

$ pytest -rpP
platform linux -- Python 3.x.y, pytest-6.x.y, py-1.x.y, pluggy-0.x.y
cachedir: $PYTHON_PREFIX/.pytest_cache
rootdir: $REGENDOC_TMPDIR
collected 6 items

test_example.py .FEsxX                                               [100%]

_______________________ ERROR at setup of test_error _______________________

    @pytest.fixture
    def error_fixture():
>       assert 0
E       assert 0

test_example.py:6: AssertionError
________________________________ test_fail _________________________________

    def test_fail():
>       assert 0
E       assert 0

test_example.py:14: AssertionError
_________________________________ test_ok __________________________________
--------------------------- Captured stdout call ---------------------------
ok
PASSED test_example.py::test_ok

Dropping to PDB (Python Debugger) on failures {#pdb-option}

Python comes with a builtin Python debugger called
PDB. pytest allows one to
drop into the PDB prompt via
a command line option:

pytest --pdb

This will invoke the Python debugger on every failure (or
KeyboardInterrupt). Often you might only want to do this for the first
failing test to understand a certain failure situation:

pytest -x --pdb   # drop to PDB on first failure, then end test session
pytest --pdb --maxfail=3  # drop to PDB for first three failures

Note that on any failure the exception information is stored on
sys.last_value, sys.last_type and sys.last_traceback. In
interactive use, this allows one to drop into postmortem debugging with
any debug tool. One can also manually access the exception information,
for example:

>>> import sys
>>> sys.last_traceback.tb_lineno
42
>>> sys.last_value

Dropping to PDB (Python Debugger) at the start of a test {#trace-option}

pytest allows one to drop into the
PDB prompt immediately at the
start of each test via a command line option:

pytest --trace

This will invoke the Python debugger at the start of every test.

Setting breakpoints {#breakpoints}

To set a breakpoint in your code use the native Python
import pdb;pdb.set_trace() call in your code and pytest automatically
disables its output capture for that test:

  • Output capture in other tests is not affected.
  • Any prior test output that has already been captured and will be
    processed as such.
  • Output capture gets resumed when ending the debugger session (via
    the continue command).

Using the builtin breakpoint function {#breakpoint-builtin}

Python 3.7 introduces a builtin breakpoint() function. Pytest supports
the use of breakpoint() with the following behaviours:

  • When breakpoint() is called and PYTHONBREAKPOINT is set to the
    default value, pytest will use the custom internal PDB trace UI
    instead of the system default Pdb.
  • When tests are complete, the system will default back to the
    system Pdb trace UI.
  • With --pdb passed to pytest, the custom internal Pdb trace UI is
    used with both breakpoint() and failed tests/unhandled
    exceptions.
  • --pdbcls can be used to specify a custom debugger class.

Profiling test execution duration {#durations}

::: {.versionchanged}
6.0
:::

To get a list of the slowest 10 test durations over 1.0s long:

pytest --durations=10 --durations-min=1.0

By default, pytest will not show test durations that are too small
(<0.005s) unless -vv is passed on the command-line.

Fault Handler {#faulthandler}

::: {.versionadded}
5.0
:::

The faulthandler
standard module can be used to dump Python tracebacks on a segfault or
after a timeout.

The module is automatically enabled for pytest runs, unless the
-p no:faulthandler is given on the command-line.

Also the
faulthandler_timeout=X<faulthandler_timeout>{.interpreted-text
role=“confval”} configuration option can be used to dump the traceback
of all threads if a test takes longer than X seconds to finish (not
available on Windows).

::: {.note}
::: {.title}
Note
:::

This functionality has been integrated from the external
pytest-faulthandler
plugin, with two small differences:

  • To disable it, use -p no:faulthandler instead of
    --no-faulthandler: the former can be used with any plugin, so it
    saves one option.
  • The --faulthandler-timeout command-line option has become the
    faulthandler_timeout{.interpreted-text role=“confval”}
    configuration option. It can still be configured from the
    command-line using -o faulthandler_timeout=X.
    :::

Creating JUnitXML format files

To create result files which can be read by
Jenkins or other Continuous integration
servers, use this invocation:

pytest --junitxml=path

to create an XML file at path.

To set the name of the root test suite xml item, you can configure the
junit_suite_name option in your config file:

[pytest]
junit_suite_name = my_suite

::: {.versionadded}
4.0
:::

JUnit XML specification seems to indicate that "time" attribute should
report total test execution times, including setup and teardown
(1,
2).
It is the default pytest behavior. To report just call durations
instead, configure the junit_duration_report option like this:

[pytest]
junit_duration_report = call

record_property {#record_property example}

If you want to log additional information for a test, you can use the
record_property fixture:

def test_function(record_property):
    record_property("example_key", 1)
    assert True

This will add an extra property example_key="1" to the generated
testcase tag:

<testcase classname="test_function" file="test_function.py" line="0" name="test_function" time="0.0009">
  <properties>
    <property name="example_key" value="1" />
  </properties>
</testcase>

Alternatively, you can integrate this functionality with custom markers:

# content of conftest.py


def pytest_collection_modifyitems(session, config, items):
    for item in items:
        for marker in item.iter_markers(name="test_id"):
            test_id = marker.args[0]
            item.user_properties.append(("test_id", test_id))

And in your tests:

# content of test_function.py
import pytest


@pytest.mark.test_id(1501)
def test_function():
    assert True

Will result in:

<testcase classname="test_function" file="test_function.py" line="0" name="test_function" time="0.0009">
  <properties>
    <property name="test_id" value="1501" />
  </properties>
</testcase>

::: {.warning}
::: {.title}
Warning
:::

Please note that using this feature will break schema verifications for
the latest JUnitXML schema. This might be a problem when used with some
CI servers.
:::

record_xml_attribute

To add an additional xml attribute to a testcase element, you can use
record_xml_attribute fixture. This can also be used to override
existing values:

def test_function(record_xml_attribute):
    record_xml_attribute("assertions", "REQ-1234")
    record_xml_attribute("classname", "custom_classname")
    print("hello world")
    assert True

Unlike record_property, this will not add a new child element.
Instead, this will add an attribute assertions="REQ-1234" inside the
generated testcase tag and override the default classname with
"classname=custom_classname":

<testcase classname="custom_classname" file="test_function.py" line="0" name="test_function" time="0.003" assertions="REQ-1234">
    <system-out>
        hello world
    </system-out>
</testcase>

::: {.warning}
::: {.title}
Warning
:::

record_xml_attribute is an experimental feature, and its interface
might be replaced by something more powerful and general in future
versions. The functionality per-se will be kept, however.

Using this over record_xml_property can help when using ci tools to
parse the xml report. However, some parsers are quite strict about the
elements and attributes that are allowed. Many tools use an xsd schema
(like the example below) to validate incoming xml. Make sure you are
using attribute names that are allowed by your parser.

Below is the Scheme used by Jenkins to validate the XML report:

<xs:element name="testcase">
    <xs:complexType>
        <xs:sequence>
            <xs:element ref="skipped" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="1"/>
            <xs:element ref="error" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
            <xs:element ref="failure" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
            <xs:element ref="system-out" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
            <xs:element ref="system-err" minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
        </xs:sequence>
        <xs:attribute name="name" type="xs:string" use="required"/>
        <xs:attribute name="assertions" type="xs:string" use="optional"/>
        <xs:attribute name="time" type="xs:string" use="optional"/>
        <xs:attribute name="classname" type="xs:string" use="optional"/>
        <xs:attribute name="status" type="xs:string" use="optional"/>
    </xs:complexType>
</xs:element>

:::

::: {.warning}
::: {.title}
Warning
:::

Please note that using this feature will break schema verifications for
the latest JUnitXML schema. This might be a problem when used with some
CI servers.
:::

record_testsuite_property {#record_testsuite_property example}

::: {.versionadded}
4.5
:::

If you want to add a properties node at the test-suite level, which may
contains properties that are relevant to all tests, you can use the
record_testsuite_property session-scoped fixture:

The record_testsuite_property session-scoped fixture can be used to
add properties relevant to all tests.

import pytest


@pytest.fixture(scope="session", autouse=True)
def log_global_env_facts(record_testsuite_property):
    record_testsuite_property("ARCH", "PPC")
    record_testsuite_property("STORAGE_TYPE", "CEPH")


class TestMe:
    def test_foo(self):
        assert True

The fixture is a callable which receives name and value of a
<property> tag added at the test-suite level of the generated xml:

<testsuite errors="0" failures="0" name="pytest" skipped="0" tests="1" time="0.006">
  <properties>
    <property name="ARCH" value="PPC"/>
    <property name="STORAGE_TYPE" value="CEPH"/>
  </properties>
  <testcase classname="test_me.TestMe" file="test_me.py" line="16" name="test_foo" time="0.000243663787842"/>
</testsuite>

name must be a string, value will be converted to a string and
properly xml-escaped.

The generated XML is compatible with the latest xunit standard,
contrary to record_property and
record_xml_attribute.

Creating resultlog format files

To create plain-text machine-readable result files you can issue:

pytest --resultlog=path

and look at the content at the path location. Such files are used e.g.
by the PyPy-test web page to show
test results over several revisions.

::: {.warning}
::: {.title}
Warning
:::

This option is rarely used and is scheduled for removal in pytest 6.0.

If you use this option, consider using the new
pytest-reportlog
plugin instead.

See the deprecation
docs

for more information.
:::

Sending test report to online pastebin service

Creating a URL for each test failure:

pytest --pastebin=failed

This will submit test run information to a remote Paste service and
provide a URL for each failure. You may select tests as usual or add for
example -x if you only want to send one particular failure.

Creating a URL for a whole test session log:

pytest --pastebin=all

Currently only pasting to the http://bpaste.net service is
implemented.

::: {.versionchanged}
5.2
:::

If creating the URL fails for any reason, a warning is generated instead
of failing the entire test suite.

Early loading plugins

You can early-load plugins (internal and external) explicitly in the
command-line with the -p option:

pytest -p mypluginmodule

The option receives a name parameter, which can be:

  • A full module dotted name, for example myproject.plugins. This
    dotted name must be importable.

  • The entry-point name of a plugin. This is the name passed to
    setuptools when the plugin is registered. For example to
    early-load the pytest-cov
    plugin you can use:

    pytest -p pytest_cov
    

Disabling plugins

To disable loading specific plugins at invocation time, use the -p
option together with the prefix no:.

Example: to disable loading the plugin doctest, which is responsible
for executing doctest tests from text files, invoke pytest like this:

pytest -p no:doctest

Calling pytest from Python code {#pytest.main-usage}

You can invoke pytest from Python code directly:

pytest.main()

this acts as if you would call “pytest” from the command line. It will
not raise SystemExit but return the exitcode instead. You can pass in
options and arguments:

pytest.main(["-x", "mytestdir"])

You can specify additional plugins to pytest.main:

# content of myinvoke.py
import pytest


class MyPlugin:
    def pytest_sessionfinish(self):
        print("*** test run reporting finishing")


pytest.main(["-qq"], plugins=[MyPlugin()])

Running it will show that MyPlugin was added and its hook was invoked:

$ python myinvoke.py
.FEsxX.                                                              [100%]*** test run reporting finishing

_______________________ ERROR at setup of test_error _______________________

    @pytest.fixture
    def error_fixture():
>       assert 0
E       assert 0

test_example.py:6: AssertionError
________________________________ test_fail _________________________________

    def test_fail():
>       assert 0
E       assert 0

test_example.py:14: AssertionError
FAILED test_example.py::test_fail - assert 0
ERROR test_example.py::test_error - assert 0

::: {.note}
::: {.title}
Note
:::

Calling pytest.main() will result in importing your tests and any
modules that they import. Due to the caching mechanism of python’s
import system, making subsequent calls to pytest.main() from the same
process will not reflect changes to those files between the calls. For
this reason, making multiple calls to pytest.main() from the same
process (in order to re-run tests, for example) is not recommended.
:::