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selenium-同cookies一起工作


title: “同cookies一起工作”
weight: 6

Cookie是从网站发送并存储在您的计算机中的一小段数据. Cookies主要用于识别用户并加载存储的信息.

WebDriver API提供了一种使用内置的方法与Cookie进行交互:

添加 Cookie

这个方法常常用于将cookie添加到当前访问的上下文中. 添加Cookie仅接受一组已定义的可序列化JSON对象. 这里
是一个链接, 用于描述可接受的JSON键值的列表

首先, 您需要位于有效Cookie的域上. 如果您在开始与网站进行交互之前尝试预设cookie, 并且您的首页很大或需要一段时间才能加载完毕, 则可以选择在网站上找到一个较小的页面 (通常404页很小,
例如 http://example.com/some404page)

{{< code-tab >}}
{{< code-panel language=“java” >}}
import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class addCookie {
public static void main(String args) {
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
try {
driver.get(“http://www.example.com”);

        // Adds the cookie into current browser context
        driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie("key", "value"));
    } finally {
        driver.quit();
    }
}

}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“python” >}}
from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Chrome()

driver.get(“http://www.example.com”)

Adds the cookie into current browser context

driver.add_cookie({“name”: “key”, “value”: “value”})
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“csharp” >}}
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace AddCookie {
class AddCookie {
public static void Main(string args) {
IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
try {
// Navigate to Url
driver.Navigate().GoToUrl(“https://example.com”);

// Adds the cookie into current browser context
driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie("key", "value"));

} finally {
driver.Quit();
}
}
}
}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“ruby” >}}
require ‘selenium-webdriver’
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
driver.get ‘https://www.example.com

Adds the cookie into current browser context

driver.manage.add_cookie(name: “key”, value: “value”)
ensure
driver.quit
end
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“javascript” >}}
const {Builder} = require(‘selenium-webdriver’);
(async function example() {
let driver = new Builder()
.forBrowser(‘chrome’)
.build();

await driver.get('https://www.example.com');

// set a cookie on the current domain
await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'key', value: 'value'});

})();
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“kotlin” >}}
import org.openqa.selenium.Cookie
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
val driver = ChromeDriver()
try {
driver.get(“https://example.com”)

    // Adds the cookie into current browser context
    driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie("key", "value"))
} finally {
    driver.quit()
}

}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< / code-tab >}}

获取命名的 Cookie

此方法返回与cookie名称匹配的序列化cookie数据中所有关联的cookie.

{{< code-tab >}}
{{< code-panel language=“java” >}}
import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class getCookieNamed {
public static void main(String args) {
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
try {
driver.get(“http://www.example.com”);
driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie(“foo”, “bar”));

        // Get cookie details with named cookie 'foo'
        Cookie cookie1 = driver.manage().getCookieNamed("foo");
        System.out.println(cookie1);
    } finally {
        driver.quit();
    }
}

}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“python” >}}
from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Chrome()

Navigate to url

driver.get(“http://www.example.com”)

Adds the cookie into current browser context

driver.add_cookie({“name”: “foo”, “value”: “bar”})

Get cookie details with named cookie ‘foo’

print(driver.get_cookie(“foo”))
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“csharp” >}}
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace GetCookieNamed {
class GetCookieNamed {
public static void Main(string args) {
IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
try {
// Navigate to Url
driver.Navigate().GoToUrl(“https://example.com”);
driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie(“foo”, “bar”));

// Get cookie details with named cookie 'foo'
var cookie = driver.Manage().Cookies.GetCookieNamed("foo");
System.Console.WriteLine(cookie);

} finally {
driver.Quit();
}
}
}
}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“ruby” >}}
require ‘selenium-webdriver’
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
driver.get ‘https://www.example.com
driver.manage.add_cookie(name: “foo”, value: “bar”)

Get cookie details with named cookie ‘foo’

puts driver.manage.cookie_named(‘foo’)
ensure
driver.quit
end
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“javascript” >}}
const {Builder} = require(‘selenium-webdriver’);
(async function example() {
let driver = new Builder()
.forBrowser(‘chrome’)
.build();

await driver.get('https://www.example.com');

// set a cookie on the current domain
await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'foo', value: 'bar'});

// Get cookie details with named cookie 'foo' 
driver.manage().getCookie('foo').then(function (cookie) {
    console.log('cookie details => ', cookie);
});

})();
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“kotlin” >}}
import org.openqa.selenium.Cookie
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
val driver = ChromeDriver()
try {
driver.get(“https://example.com”)
driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie(“foo”, “bar”))

    // Get cookie details with named cookie 'foo'
    val cookie = driver.manage().getCookieNamed("foo")
    println(cookie)
} finally {
    driver.quit()
}

}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< / code-tab >}}

获取全部 Cookies

此方法会针对当前访问上下文返回“成功的序列化cookie数据”. 如果浏览器不再可用, 则返回错误.

{{< code-tab >}}
{{< code-panel language=“java” >}}
import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import java.util.Set;

public class getAllCookies {
public static void main(String args) {
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
try {
driver.get(“http://www.example.com”);
// Add few cookies
driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie(“test1”, “cookie1”));
driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie(“test2”, “cookie2”));

        // Get All available cookies
        Set<Cookie> cookies = driver.manage().getCookies();
        System.out.println(cookies);
    } finally {
        driver.quit();
    }
}

}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“python” >}}
from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Chrome()

Navigate to url

driver.get(“http://www.example.com”)

driver.add_cookie({“name”: “test1”, “value”: “cookie1”})
driver.add_cookie({“name”: “test2”, “value”: “cookie2”})

Get all available cookies

print(driver.get_cookies())
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“csharp” >}}
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace GetAllCookies {
class GetAllCookies {
public static void Main(string args) {
IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
try {
// Navigate to Url
driver.Navigate().GoToUrl(“https://example.com”);
driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie(“test1”, “cookie1”));
driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie(“test2”, “cookie2”));

// Get All available cookies
var cookies = driver.Manage().Cookies.AllCookies;

} finally {
driver.Quit();
}
}
}
}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“ruby” >}}
require ‘selenium-webdriver’
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
driver.get ‘https://www.example.com
driver.manage.add_cookie(name: “test1”, value: “cookie1”)
driver.manage.add_cookie(name: “test2”, value: “cookie2”)

Get all available cookies

puts driver.manage.all_cookies
ensure
driver.quit
end
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“javascript” >}}
const {Builder} = require(‘selenium-webdriver’);
(async function example() {
let driver = new Builder()
.forBrowser(‘chrome’)
.build();

await driver.get('https://www.example.com');

// Add few cookies
await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'test1', value:'cookie1'});
await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'test2', value:'cookie2'});

// Get all Available cookies
driver.manage().getCookies().then(function (cookies) {
    console.log('cookie details => ', cookies);
});

})();
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“kotlin” >}}
import org.openqa.selenium.Cookie
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
val driver = ChromeDriver()
try {
driver.get(“https://example.com”)
driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie(“test1”, “cookie1”))
driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie(“test2”, “cookie2”))

    // Get All available cookies
    val cookies = driver.manage().cookies
    println(cookies)
} finally {
    driver.quit()
}

}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< / code-tab >}}

删除 Cookie

此方法删除与提供的cookie名称匹配的cookie数据.

{{< code-tab >}}
{{< code-panel language=“java” >}}
import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class deleteCookie {
public static void main(String args) {
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
try {
driver.get(“http://www.example.com”);
driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie(“test1”, “cookie1”));
Cookie cookie1 = new Cookie(“test2”, “cookie2”);
driver.manage().addCookie(cookie1);

        // delete a cookie with name 'test1'
        driver.manage().deleteCookieNamed("test1");

        /*
         Selenium Java bindings also provides a way to delete
         cookie by passing cookie object of current browsing context
         */
        driver.manage().deleteCookie(cookie1);
    } finally {
        driver.quit();
    }
}

}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“python” >}}
from selenium import webdriver
driver = webdriver.Chrome()

Navigate to url

driver.get(“http://www.example.com”)
driver.add_cookie({“name”: “test1”, “value”: “cookie1”})
driver.add_cookie({“name”: “test2”, “value”: “cookie2”})

Delete a cookie with name ‘test1’

driver.delete_cookie(“test1”)
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“csharp” >}}
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace DeleteCookie {
class DeleteCookie {
public static void Main(string args) {
IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
try {
// Navigate to Url
driver.Navigate().GoToUrl(“https://example.com”);
driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie(“test1”, “cookie1”));
var cookie = new Cookie(“test2”, “cookie2”);
driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(cookie);

// delete a cookie with name 'test1'	
driver.Manage().Cookies.DeleteCookieNamed("test1");

// Selenium .net bindings also provides a way to delete
// cookie by passing cookie object of current browsing context
driver.Manage().Cookies.DeleteCookie(cookie);

} finally {
driver.Quit();
}
}
}
}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“ruby” >}}
require ‘selenium-webdriver’
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
driver.get ‘https://www.example.com
driver.manage.add_cookie(name: “test1”, value: “cookie1”)
driver.manage.add_cookie(name: “test2”, value: “cookie2”)

delete a cookie with name ‘test1’

driver.manage.delete_cookie(‘test1’)
ensure
driver.quit
end
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“javascript” >}}
const {Builder} = require(‘selenium-webdriver’);
(async function example() {
let driver = new Builder()
.forBrowser(‘chrome’)
.build();

await driver.get('https://www.example.com');

// Add few cookies
await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'test1', value:'cookie1'});
await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'test2', value:'cookie2'});

// Delete a cookie with name 'test1'
await driver.manage().deleteCookie('test1');

// Get all Available cookies
driver.manage().getCookies().then(function (cookies) {
    console.log('cookie details => ', cookies);
});

})();
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“kotlin” >}}
import org.openqa.selenium.Cookie
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
val driver = ChromeDriver()
try {
driver.get(“https://example.com”)
driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie(“test1”, “cookie1”))
val cookie1 = Cookie(“test2”, “cookie2”)
driver.manage().addCookie(cookie1)

    // delete a cookie with name 'test1'
    driver.manage().deleteCookieNamed("test1")
    
    // delete cookie by passing cookie object of current browsing context.
    driver.manage().deleteCookie(cookie1)
} finally {
    driver.quit()
}

}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< / code-tab >}}

删除所有 Cookies

此方法删除当前访问上下文的所有cookie.

{{< code-tab >}}
{{< code-panel language=“java” >}}
import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class deleteAllCookies {
public static void main(String args) {
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
try {
driver.get(“http://www.example.com”);
driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie(“test1”, “cookie1”));
driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie(“test2”, “cookie2”));

        // deletes all cookies
        driver.manage().deleteAllCookies();
    } finally {
        driver.quit();
    }
}

}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“python” >}}
from selenium import webdriver
driver = webdriver.Chrome()

Navigate to url

driver.get(“http://www.example.com”)
driver.add_cookie({“name”: “test1”, “value”: “cookie1”})
driver.add_cookie({“name”: “test2”, “value”: “cookie2”})

Deletes all cookies

driver.delete_all_cookies()
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“csharp” >}}
using OpenQA.Selenium;
using OpenQA.Selenium.Chrome;

namespace DeleteAllCookies {
class DeleteAllCookies {
public static void Main(string args) {
IWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
try {
// Navigate to Url
driver.Navigate().GoToUrl(“https://example.com”);
driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie(“test1”, “cookie1”));
driver.Manage().Cookies.AddCookie(new Cookie(“test2”, “cookie2”));

// deletes all cookies
driver.Manage().Cookies.DeleteAllCookies();

} finally {
driver.Quit();
}
}
}
}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“ruby” >}}
require ‘selenium-webdriver’
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
driver.get ‘https://www.example.com
driver.manage.add_cookie(name: “test1”, value: “cookie1”)
driver.manage.add_cookie(name: “test2”, value: “cookie2”)

deletes all cookies

driver.manage.delete_all_cookies
ensure
driver.quit
end
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“javascript” >}}
const {Builder} = require(‘selenium-webdriver’);
(async function example() {
let driver = new Builder()
.forBrowser(‘chrome’)
.build();

await driver.get('https://www.example.com');

// Add few cookies
await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'test1', value:'cookie1'});
await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'test2', value:'cookie2'});

// Delete all cookies
await driver.manage().deleteAllCookies();

})();
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“kotlin” >}}
import org.openqa.selenium.Cookie
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
val driver = ChromeDriver()
try {
driver.get(“https://example.com”)
driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie(“test1”, “cookie1”))
driver.manage().addCookie(Cookie(“test2”, “cookie2”))

    // deletes all cookies
    driver.manage().deleteAllCookies()
} finally {
    driver.quit()
}

}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< / code-tab >}}

Same-Site Cookie属性

此属性允许用户引导浏览器控制cookie, 是否与第三方站点发起的请求一起发送.
引入其是为了防止CSRF(跨站请求伪造)攻击.

Same-Site cookie属性接受以下两种参数作为指令

Strict:

当sameSite属性设置为 Strict,
cookie不会与来自第三方网站的请求一起发送.

Lax:

当您将cookie sameSite属性设置为 Lax,
cookie将与第三方网站发起的GET请求一起发送.

注意: 到目前为止,
此功能已在Chrome(80+版本),
Firefox(79+版本)中提供,
并适用于Selenium 4以及更高版本.

{{< code-tab >}}
{{< code-panel language=“java” >}}
import org.openqa.selenium.*;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;

public class cookieTest {
public static void main(String args) {
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
try {
driver.get(“http://www.example.com”);
Cookie cookie = new Cookie.Builder(“key”, “value”).sameSite(“Strict”).build();
Cookie cookie1 = new Cookie.Builder(“key”, “value”).sameSite(“Lax”).build();
driver.manage().addCookie(cookie);
driver.manage().addCookie(cookie1);
System.out.println(cookie.getSameSite());
System.out.println(cookie1.getSameSite());
} finally {
driver.quit();
}
}
}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“python” >}}
from selenium import webdriver

driver = webdriver.Chrome()

driver.get(“http://www.example.com”)

Adds the cookie into current browser context with sameSite ‘Strict’ (or) ‘Lax’

driver.add_cookie({“name”: “foo”, “value”: “value”, ‘sameSite’: ‘Strict’})
driver.add_cookie({“name”: “foo1”, “value”: “value”, ‘sameSite’: ‘Lax’})
cookie1 = driver.get_cookie(‘foo’)
cookie2 = driver.get_cookie(‘foo1’)
print(cookie1)
print(cookie2)
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“csharp” >}}
// Please raise a PR
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“ruby” >}}
require ‘selenium-webdriver’
driver = Selenium::WebDriver.for :chrome

begin
driver.get ‘https://www.example.com

Adds the cookie into current browser context with sameSite ‘Strict’ (or) ‘Lax’

driver.manage.add_cookie(name: “foo”, value: “bar”, same_site: “Strict”)
driver.manage.add_cookie(name: “foo1”, value: “bar”, same_site: “Lax”)
puts driver.manage.cookie_named(‘foo’)
puts driver.manage.cookie_named(‘foo1’)
ensure
driver.quit
end
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“javascript” >}}
const {Builder} = require(‘selenium-webdriver’);
(async function example() {
let driver = new Builder()
.forBrowser(‘chrome’)
.build();

await driver.get('https://www.example.com');

// set a cookie on the current domain with sameSite 'Strict' (or) 'Lax'
await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'key', value: 'value', sameSite:'Strict'});
await driver.manage().addCookie({name:'key', value: 'value', sameSite:'Lax'});
console.log(await driver.manage().getCookie('key'));

})();
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< code-panel language=“kotlin” >}}
import org.openqa.selenium.Cookie
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver

fun main() {
val driver = ChromeDriver()
try {
driver.get(“http://www.example.com”)
val cookie = Cookie.Builder(“key”, “value”).sameSite(“Strict”).build()
val cookie1 = Cookie.Builder(“key”, “value”).sameSite(“Lax”).build()
driver.manage().addCookie(cookie)
driver.manage().addCookie(cookie1)
println(cookie.getSameSite())
println(cookie1.getSameSite())
} finally {
driver.quit()
}
}
{{< / code-panel >}}
{{< / code-tab >}}

官方链接为:https://www.selenium.dev/documentation/zh-cn/support_packages/working_with_cookies